Types of Food for Diabetics and How to Take It
Managing food for diabetics aims to control blood sugar and prevent complications. The trick is to set a meal schedule with the appropriate amount and type of food.
A person is said to have diabetes if his blood sugar level is> 126 mg / dL when fasting, or> 200 mg / dL if not fasting. This is a chronic disease (long lasting) and can cause complications in the form of visual disturbances, kidney failure, heart disease, and nerve disorders. In 2017, Indonesia ranked 6th for the country with the highest number of diabetics in the world, and the number continues to increase.
Diabetes or diabetes generally results from a lack of physical activity and a wrong diet. Therefore, in dealing with diabetes, it is very important to adopt a healthy lifestyle, in addition to using medication regularly.
One healthy lifestyle that needs to be done is regular exercise, 3-5 times a week, each for 30-45 minutes, for a total of at least 150 minutes per week. Examples of recommended sports are brisk walking, brisk walking, jogging, biking, and swimming.
In addition to exercise, diabetics are also encouraged to stop smoking and regulate their diet. In managing the diet, diabetics must pay attention to the amount of intake and regularity of the meal schedule, as well as the types of foods that are good for consumption.
Amount of intake and feeding schedule for people with diabetes
The amount of intake in question is the number of calories consumed. The recommended number of calories is 25-30 calories per kilogram of ideal body weight, every day. For example, someone with an ideal body weight of 50 kg, requires 1,250-1,500 calories a day.
But, remember, ideal body weight is not current weight. For diabetics who are also obese, it is highly recommended to lose weight to prevent complications. The recommended number of calories for obese people is calculated from a previous intake analysis, minus 500 calories per day.
In addition to the amount, the eating schedule that has been determined by a nutritionist must also be obeyed, to maintain blood sugar levels in a stable and non-volatile state. Diabetics are encouraged to eat large three times a day, and eat small or intermittent 2-3 times a day. The distance between large meals and intervals ranges from 2.5 to 3 hours.
Types of Food for Diabetics
Diabetics need to determine what types of foods are good for consumption, and foods that should be avoided.
For carbohydrates, the recommended portion is 45-65% of total calories, or at least 130 grams per day. Choose high-fiber sources of complex carbohydrates, such as potatoes, vegetables, fruit, wheat, corn, and beans. Avoid simple carbohydrates, such as fruit juices, granulated sugar, and sweets, and processed flour products, such as cookies or cookies. Granulated sugar can still be consumed, a maximum of 5% of total calories (approximately 4 teaspoons) per day. Low-calorie artificial sweeteners are safe to use, as long as they don’t exceed safe limits.
The recommended amount of fiber intake is 14 grams per 1000 calories, or at least 5 servings of vegetables and fruit (1 serving is equivalent to 1 small bowl). As for protein, it is recommended 10-20% of total calories. Choose a good source of protein, such as fish, eggs, skinless chicken, lean beef, tofu, tempeh, beans, and low-fat dairy products.
The recommended portion of fat intake is 20-25% of total calories. Choose foods that contain good fats, such as fish or fats from plants, and avoid saturated fats that are found in fried foods and fats from animals.
High cholesterol and hypertension also contribute to accelerating the emergence of complications in diabetics, so that cholesterol and salt intake also needs to be reduced. To reduce cholesterol intake, you can reduce the consumption of fried foods, red meat, and innards. For salt, only a maximum of 1 teaspoon of salt is allowed in one day, equivalent to 2,300 mg of sodium per day. Avoid foods that contain hidden sodium, such as vetsin, and foods that are preserved or added preservatives.
Diabetes is a disease that has the potential to cause many complications and can greatly reduce the quality of life of sufferers. Of course this can be prevented by keeping blood sugar levels within normal limits. The method is not only by routinely taking medicines for diabetes, but also by adopting a healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet.