Meaning of High and Low Blood Sugar Levels
Blood sugar level is the amount of sugar or glucose in the blood. Even though it constantly changes, blood sugar levels need to be kept within normal limits so that there is no disruption in the body.
Blood sugar levels are influenced by the intake of nutrients from food or drinks, especially carbohydrates, as well as the amount of insulin and the sensitivity of body cells to insulin. Blood sugar levels that are too high or too low will have a negative impact on health, both in the short and long term.
What Happens if Blood Sugar Is Too High?
Blood sugar levels are said to be too high if they exceed 200 mg / dL. The medical term for too high blood sugar levels is hyperglycemia.
Hyperglycemia can occur when the body does not have enough insulin, which is the hormone released by the pancreas. Insulin functions to spread sugar from the blood to all body cells so that it can be processed into energy.
High blood sugar can also occur if the body’s cells are not sensitive to insulin, so that sugar from the blood cannot enter the cell to be processed.
High blood sugar is often experienced by diabetics who do not live a healthy lifestyle, such as eating too much, lack of exercise, or forget to take diabetes drugs or insulin. In addition, high blood sugar in diabetics can also be triggered by stress, infection, or taking certain drugs.
Normal people who do not have diabetes can also get hyperglycemia, especially if they are experiencing severe pain. Signs that you have blood sugar levels that are too high are the body feels tired, very high appetite, reduced body weight, often feeling thirsty, and frequent urination.
If blood sugar levels reach 350 mg / dL or more, the symptoms that can arise are very thirsty, blurred vision, dizziness, anxiety, and decreased consciousness. In addition, the skin will look red, dry, and feel hot.
If not treated immediately, blood sugar levels that are too high can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome, which can be fatal.
In addition, long-term high blood sugar levels without treatment can increase the risk of infection in teeth and gums, skin problems, osteoporosis, kidney failure, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease (heart and blood vessels).
What Happens if Blood Sugar Is Too Low?
Blood sugar is too low or hypoglycemia occurs when blood sugar levels are below 70 mg / dL. This condition is also common in diabetics, which is due to the side effects of the antidiabetic drugs they consume. Antidiabetic drugs, especially insulin, can reduce blood sugar levels excessively.
People with type 1 diabetes do not have enough insulin. Therefore, additional insulin from outside is needed which is usually an injection. But if the dose is too high, insulin can make blood sugar drop dramatically.
In diabetics, hypoglycemia can occur if the use of insulin or antidiabetic drugs is not accompanied by adequate food intake. Excessive exercise can also trigger this condition.
Not only diabetics, people who don’t have diabetes can experience hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. Some of the causes are:
Drink too much alcoholic beverages.
Suffering from certain diseases, such as hepatitis, anorexia nervosa, or tumors in the pancreas.
Deficiency of certain hormones.
Take certain drugs, such as quinine.
Accidentally consuming antidiabetic drugs belonging to other people.
If your blood sugar level is low, your body will feel weak and not powerful. Other symptoms that you can experience are hunger, cold sweat, pale skin, palpitations, tingling in the mouth area, anxiety, and irritability.
While the symptoms that you will experience when blood sugar levels are too low (under 40 mg / dL), among others:
Talk about wandering
Not able to stand or walk
If left silent, this condition can cause strokes, coma, and even death.
Let’s Check Your Blood Sugar
Blood sugar tests are generally recommended for people who have symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent thirst, frequent urination, and often feeling hungry. In addition, this test can also be recommended for people who have a history of diabetes in the family.
The way to find out blood sugar levels is to do a blood test. This test is useful for monitoring blood sugar levels in your body, so as not to come out of normal limits.
Blood sugar tests can be done alone at home using a glucometer. Blood samples for this examination are taken by piercing the fingertips using a special needle.
You can also do a blood sugar test at the hospital. There are several types of blood sugar tests that can be done:
Fasting blood sugar test
You are required to fast eight hours before taking a blood sample. This test is often used to diagnose the condition of prediabetes and diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test (TTGO)
In this test you will be given glucose in a certain amount, and two hours later, your blood sugar levels will be checked.
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or glycohemoglobin test
This test is performed to determine blood sugar levels in red blood cells. The HbA1c test results can provide information about your sugar levels for the past 2-3 months.
This test makes it easy for doctors to adjust the dosage and type of antidiabetic drugs, if needed. You do not need to undergo special preparation to do this test.
When blood sugar testing
This test can be done at any time and does not require special preparation. However, checking blood sugar when it cannot be used to diagnose diabetes.