Foreword

By mentioning the name of Allah SWT, the Most Merciful, Most Merciful, We offer worship and praise for His presence, who has bestowed His mercy, guidance and blessings on us, so that I can complete this paper on Protocol TCP / IP.

I have arranged this paper to the fullest and get help from various sources so that it can facilitate the making of this paper. For this reason, I express my gratitude to all sources who have contributed to the making of this paper.

Apart from all that, I am fully aware that there are still shortcomings both in terms of sentence structure and grammar. Therefore with open arms I accept all suggestions and criticisms from readers so that I can improve this paper.

Finally, I hope that this paper on Protocol TCP / IP can provide benefits and inspiration to readers.

Tangerang, November 14, 2018

Composer

table of contents

PROBLEM INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

Foreword

table of contents

List of Tables

Chapter I Introduction

1.1 Background

1.2 Definitions and definitions

CHAPTER II DISCUSSION

2.1. Protocol TCP / IP Architecture

2.2. Parts of the TCP / IP Model Layer

CHAPTER III CLOSING

3.1 Conclusions

3.2 Suggestions

List of Tables

Table 1 Advantages and disadvantages of TCP / IP. 7

Chapter I Introduction

1.1 Background

In the current era of globalization and technology, the use of computers as an information technology tool is needed in almost every company. The use of computer devices as a supporting device for management and processing of data is very appropriate by considering the quantity and quality of data, thus the use of computer devices in every information is very supportive of system decision making.

In its development to the network, where each computer device can interact with other computers, from local networks to global networks called the internet. In this paper the author will try to explain about TCP / IP and IP addresses.

1.2 Definitions and definitions

TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) is a group of protocols that regulate computer data communication on the Internet. Computers connected to the internet communicate with this protocol. Because it uses the same language, namely the TCP / IP protocol, different types of computers and operating systems are not a problem. PC computers with Windows operating systems can communicate with Macintosh computers or with Sun SPARC running Solaris. So, if a computer uses the TCP / IP protocol and is connected directly to the Internet, then the computer can connect with computers in any part of the world that are also connected to the Internet.

Below is a table of the advantages and disadvantages of the TCP / IP layer

Advantages

Deficiency

Open Protocol Standard

Independent of computer hardware, operating systems and others. Ideal for uniting machines with different hardware and software even if not connected to the internet.

If sending small data is inconvenient because it has to be handshaking first, so it’s slower than UDP

Does not depend on certain network hardware. So it is suitable for a variety of networks.

It can’t broadcast, because TCP is one to one, so if you want to send it one by one

The shared addressing method allows the TCP / IP device to uniquely identify other devices throughout the network even though it is a global (world) network.

High level protocols are standardized for consistency, thus providing extensive user service.

Table 1. Advantages and disadvantages of TCP / IP

CHAPTER II DISCUSSION

2.1. Protocol TCP / IP Architecture

Because there is no general agreement on how to describe TCP / IP with the layer model, usually TCP / IP is defined in 3-5 function levels in the protocol architecture. This time we will describe TCP / IP in the 4 layer model

If a protocol receives data from another protocol in the upper layer, it will add additional information to the data, this information has a function that matches the protocol’s function. After that, this data is forwarded again to the protocol on the layer below it. The opposite happens if a protocol receives data from another protocol that is in the layer below it. If this data is considered valid, the protocol will release the additional information to then forward the data to another protocol located on the layer above it.

This network connection device is generally divided into several categories, namely:

Repeater: Receives signals from one LAN cable segment and transmits them with the same power as the original signal on another LAN cable segment.
Bridge: Similar Repeaters, but smarter, because the bridge studies each Ethernet address that is connected to it.
Router: Has the ability to pass IP packets from one network to another network that may have many paths between the two.

2.2. Parts of the TCP / IP Model Layer

Below are the parts of the TCP / IP layer Model Layer:

NETWORK ACCESS LAYER

The protocol at this layer provides the media for the system to send data to other devices that are directly connected. In the literature used in this paper, the Network Access Layer is a combination of Network, Data Link and Physical layer. The Network Access Layer function in TCP / IP is hidden, and the more commonly known protocols (IP, TCP, UDP, etc.) are used as higher-level protocols … Functions in this layer are changing IP datagrams to frames transmitted by the network, and mapping IP addresses to physical addresses used in the network. This IP Address must be changed to whatever address is needed for the physical layer to transmit the datagram.

INTERNET LAYER

IP (Internet Protocol) à unreliable, connectionless, datagram delivery service

The IP protocol is the core of the TCP / IP protocol. All data originating from the protocol on the layer above the IP must be passed, processed by the IP protocol, and transmitted as an IP packet, to get to the destination. In sending data, IP has properties known as unreliable, connectionless, datagram delivery service.

Unreliable means that the IP Protocol does not guarantee that the sent datagram will arrive at its destination. The IP protocol only promised that it would do its best (best effort delivery service), so that the package sent arrived at its destination. If things happen on the trip (one of the lines is broken, the router is down, or the host / network destination is down), protocol IP only tells the sender of the packet through the ICMP protocol, that there is a problem sending the IP packet to the destination. If better reliability is desired, reliability must be provided by a protocol that is above this IP layer (i.e. TCP and application layer). Connectionless means that in sending packets from place of origin to destination, the sender and recipient of the IP package does not make a handshake at all. Datagram delivery service means that each packet of data sent is independent of other data packages. As a result, the path taken by each IP data package to its destination can be different from one another. Because the route taken was different, the arrival of the package could not be sequential. This is done to ensure the arrival of the IP package to the destination, even though one path to that destination has a problem.

Each IP packet carries data consisting of:

Version, contains a version of the protocol used. Currently the one used is IP version 4.
Header Length, contains the length of the IP packet header in a 32-bit word count.
Type of Service, contains the quality of services that can affect the way the IP package is handled.
Total Length of Datagram, length of IP datagram in byte size.
Identification, Flags, and Fragment Offset, contain some data related to packet fragmentation. Packages that are passed through various types of paths will experience fragmentation (broken down into smaller packages) according to the maximum data size that can be transmitted through that path.
Time to Live, contains the maximum number of routers / hops that IP packets can pass. Every time you pass a router, the contents of this field are reduced by one. If the TTL has run out and the package still hasn’t reached its destination, this packet will be discarded and the last router will send the ICMP time exceeded packet. This is done to prevent IP packets from being continuously inside the nerwork.
Protocol, contains a number that identifies the protocol layer for users to fill data from this IP packet.
The Checksum header, contains the checksum value calculated from all fields of the IP packet header. Before being sent, the IP protocol first calculates the checksum of the IP packet header for the countdown to be recalculated on the receiving side. If there is a difference, this package is considered damaged and discarded.
IP Address of the sender and recipient of the data.

This IP Address is grouped in five classes:

Class A

Format: 0nnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhh

First byte: 0 – 127 (127 for local loopback)

Amount: 126 class A (0 and 127 reserved)

IP range: 1.xxx.xxx.xxx to 126.xxx.xxx.xxx

Number of IP: 16,777,214 IP Address for each class A

Class B

Format: 10nnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhhh

First Byte: 128 – 191

Amount: 16384 class B

IP range: 128.0.xxx.xxx to 191.155.xxx.xxx

Number of IP: 65,532 IP Address for each class B

Class C

Format: 110nnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhhhhhhh

First byte: 192 – 223

Amount: 2,097,152 Class C

IP range: 192.0.0.xxx to 223.255.255.xxx

Number of IP: 254 IP Address for each class C

Class D

Format: 1110mmmm mmmmmmmm mmmmmmmm mmmmmmmm

Multicast bit: 128 bits

Byte Initials: 224 – 247

Description: Class D is a multicast address space (RFC 1112)

Class E

Format: 1111rrrr rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrr

Backup bit: 28 bits

Initial Byte: 248 – 255

Description: Class D is the address space reserved for

experimental needs.

Note: n = network bit, h = host bit, m = multicast bit, r = backup bit

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) à provides control and messaging capabilities
ARP (Adress Resolution Protocol) à determines the data link layer address for a known IP Address.
RARP (Reverse Adress Resolution Protocol) determines the Network Address when the data link layer address is known.

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TRANSPORT LAYER

The transport layer has two functions – regulating data flow between two hosts and reliability.

In the transport layer there are two protocols:

TCP – a connection-oriented, reliable protocol, byte stream service. Connection Oriented means that before exchanging data, two TCP user applications must make a handshake first. Reliable means TCP implements packet error detection and retransmission processes. The Byte Stream Service means the package is sent and reaches the destination in sequence.
UDP – connectionless and unreliable. Even though it is responsible for transmitting messages / data, there is no software that checks the interstations of each segment done by this layer. The advantage of using UDP is its speed because there are no acknowledgments in UDP, so that traffic over the network is low, and that makes UDP faster than TCP.
APPLICATION LAYER

At the very top of the TCP / IP protocol architecture is the Application Layer. This layer includes all processes that use the transport layer to transmit data. There are so many application protocols currently in use.

Some of them are :

– TELNET, the Network Terminal Protocol, which provides remote logins on the network

– FTP, File Transfer Protocol, is used for file transfers

– SMTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, is used to send e-mail

– DNS, Domain Name Service, to map IP Addresses to certain names

– RIP, Routing Information Protocol, routing protocol

– OSPF, Open Shortest Path First, routing protocol

– NFS, Network File System, for sharing files against various hosts on the network

– HTTP, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, protocol for web browsing.

CHAPTER III CLOSING

3.1 Conclusions

The author will conclude again about this paper. TCP / IP is (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) if translated is Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol, is a combination of protocols TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol) as a group of protocols that regulate data communication in the process of exchanging data from one computer to another computer on the internet network that will ensure the transmission of data to the destination address. This protocol cannot stand alone, because indeed this protocol is in the form of a collection of protocols (protocol suite), whereas Understanding IP Address (Internet Protocol Address) is a numerical identity labeled to a device such as a computer, router or printer contained in a computer network use the internet protocol as a means of communication. Some of the authors know about this paper.

3.2 Suggestions

Thus this report the authors arrange in accordance with what the author knows, the author still expects criticism and suggestions from readers who are constructive to perfect this report.