Types of Computer Networking Devices
1). Network Interface Card (NIC)
Network Card (NIC) is a device that provides media to connect between computers, most network cards are internal cards, namely network cards installed in the expansion slot inside the computer. Some computers, such as MAC computers, use a special box that is plugged into a serial port or SCSI port on the computer. On a notebook computer there is a slot for a network card commonly called a PCMCIA slot. Network cards that are widely used today are: Ethernet network cards, LocalTalk connectors, and Token Ring network cards. What is currently popularly used is Ethernet, then followed by Token Ring, and LocalTalk. Ethernet network cards generally provide connection ports for coaxial cable or twisted pair cable, if designed for coaxial cable, the connection is BNC, and if it is designed for twisted pair cable, it will have an RJ-45 connector. Some ethernet network cards sometimes also have an AUI connector. All of that is connected with coaxial, twisted pair, or with fiber optic cable.
A Concentrator / Hub is a device that unifies network cables from each workstation, server or other device. In the Star topology, twisted pair cables come from a workstation into the hub. The hub has many concentrator slots which can be installed according to the port number of the destination card. The characteristics of a Concentrator are:
Usually consists of 8, 12, or 24 RJ-45 ports Used in the Star / Star topology Usually sold with special applications, namely applications that manage the port management.
Usually called hubs Usually installed on special shelves, which have Bridges, routers
A network switch (or switch for short) is a network device that performs transparent bridging (connecting multiple network segments with forwarding based on MAC addresses).
Switches can be called multi-port bridges because they have their own collision domains and broadcast domains, can manage packet traffic through network switches. The way to connect a computer to a switch is very similar to connecting a computer or router to a hub. Switches can be used directly to replace hubs that are already installed on the network.
Network switches can be used as a connecting computer or router in a limited area, switches also work on the data link layer, switches work almost the same as bridges, but switches have a number of ports so they are often called multi-port bridges.
The easiest example on a LAN uses a Star topology using unshielded twisted pair cables. Where it is known that the maximum length for an unshielded twisted pair cable is 100 meters, a repeater is installed to strengthen the signal from the cable.
Is a device that divides one network into two networks, this is used to get an efficient network, where sometimes the network growth is very fast so the bridge is needed for it. Most Bridges can know each address of each computer segment on the network next to it and also on the other network next to it. It is likened that Bridges is like a traffic police that regulates at a crossroads during rush hour. He arranged for information between the two sides of the network to continue to run well and regularly. Bridges can also be used to connect between networks that use different types of cables or different topologies.
A Router decodes information from one network to another, it is almost the same as Bridge but smarter, the router will find the best path to send a message based on the destination address and origin address. While Bridges can find out the address of each computer on each side of the network, the router knows the address of the computer, bridges and other routers. the router can know the whole network to see which side is the busiest and he can draw data from the busy side until the side is clean.
If a company has a LAN and wants to connect to the Internet, they must buy a router. This means that a router can translate information between your LAN and the Internet. This also means finding the best route alternative for sending data over the internet. This means that the Router is efficiently managing the signal path 2. Managing Messages between two protocols 3. Managing Messages between linear network topologies Bus and Stars (star) 4. Managing Messages between passing Fiber Optic Cables, Coaxial Cables or Twisted Pair Cables
7). Access Point
Is a device that becomes a central connection from the user (user) to an ISP (Internet Service Provider), or from a branch office to the head office if the network belongs to a company. Access-Point functions to convert radio frequency (RF) signals into digital signals that will be transmitted through a cable, or channeled to another WLAN device by being converted back into a radio frequency signal.